WITH AN INTRODUCTION BY
Samuel Noah Kramer
WITH CONTRIBUTIONS BY
Rudolf Anthes Hans G. Guterbock
Derk Bodde Michael H. Jameson
W Norman Brown Samuel Noah Kramer
M.J. Dresden Miguel Leon-Portilla
Cyrus H. Gordon E. Dale Saunders
NEW YORK LONDON TORONTO SYDNEY AUCKLAND
An Anchor Book
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FIRST ANCHOR BOOKS EDITION: 1961
Table of Contents
introduction, by Samuel Noah Kramer 7
mythology in ancient egypt, by Rudolf Anthes 15
MYTHOLOGY OF SUMER AND AKKAD, by Samuel
Noah Kramer 93
httote mythology, by Hans G. Guterbock 139
canaanite mythology, by Cyrus H. Gordon 181
mythology of ancient Greece, by Michael H.
mythology of india, by W. Norman Brown 277
mythology of ancient Iran, by M. J. Dresden 331
myths of ancient china, by Derk Bodde 367
Japanese mythology, by E. Dale Saunders 409
MYTHOLOGY OF ANCIENT MEXICO, by Miguel
BY CYRUS H. GORDON
Canaan is the Syro-Palestinian segment of the Fertile Crescent,
between the Mediterranean and the desert. The people speak-
ing the Canaanite dialects included the Hebrews and Phoe-
nicians as well as a host of small kindred nations such as the
Edomites, Moabites, and Ammonites. Canaanite paganism
is of particular importance because Biblical religion in some
ways continued it, and in others reacted violently and con-
sciously against it. Our Judeo-Christian tradition harks back,
both through borrowing and reaction, to its Canaanite sub-
The Bible is a mine of information on Canaanite mythol-
ogy and religion. The more limited corpus of Phoenician in-
scriptions provides some additional data. Much can be learned
from numerous classical sources, such as Lucian’s Dea Syra.
But since 1929, mythological texts have been emerging from
the soil at Ugarit, providing us with the texts of the myths
that circulated in the fourteenth century b.c . 1 Any basic
study of Canaanite mythology must therefore rest primarily
on the Ugaritic mythological tablets. In the following pages
we shall remain close to our Ugaritic sources, making only
brief incursions into other material when the resultant com-
parisons are of special importance, or at least new.
The Ugaritic myths explain nature so as to satisfy man’s
craving for the answers to the universe, and to guarantee the
regularity of the processes that result in fertility: fertility
of mankind, animals, and plants. The content of the myths
is conveyed through narrative full of action; the ancients were
not interested in abstractions. Their thinking was concrete
and their gods are portrayed as engaging in lively and sig-
nificant action. For example, when Baal (the god of fertility
and life) and Mot (the god of sterility and death) fight
furiously, the action is not only interesting per se, but it is
significant in that the outcome determines whether the land
will be fertile or sterile for a prolonged period.
Fertility is the main concern of the Ugaritic myths. The
fertility that the ancients aspired to was within the framework
of nature; they wanted each manifestation of fertility in its
due season. They wanted nothing (not even blessings such
as rain and crops) out of season. What they dreaded was the
failure »f rain and crops in season. They desired the harvest of
barley, wheat, tree fruits, olives, and grapes, each at its
normal time. Fertility of the soil is an around-the-year affair
without any necessary sterile season in Canaan. Only the
component segments of Canaanite fertility (i.e., the succes-
sive harvests) are seasonal. Nor is precipitation as a whole
seasonal in a good year; for when the winter rain ends, the
summer dew begins. Rain is seasonal, and so is the dew.
But since, as the texts tell us, Baal grants both rain and dew,
he functions as the water-giving god during all twelve months
of the year . 2 Dew (as the ancients knew) is necessary during
the summer for the ripening of agricultural products such as
grapes (which are harvested down to the end of the rain-
less summer). Accordingly, the great mass of scholarly writ-
ing on Baal, who is supposed to die for the rainless summer
and return to life for the rainy winter, misses the point of
ancient Near East religion as well as of Near East climate.
The ancients wanted the regularity of the normal year, with
everything including the rain and dew in its proper season.
They dreaded rainless winters, dewless summers, and locust
years. A succession of dry or locust years was the terrible
scourge that they wanted to avert at all costs. We shall see
that the theme of the dying and reviving gods is not sea-
sonal but “sabbatical,” having to do with seven-year cycles
of fertility and sterility.
CANAANITE MYTHOLOGY 185
The fertility cult was not limited to Baal and his female
counterpart Anath. It is true that our longest texts con-
cerning the fertility myths are Baalistic, but it is also a fact
that text #52, which deals specifically with this problem,
never so much as mentions Baal. In that text El is the prime
mover. The prominence of Baal and Anath in the fertility
myths is simply a corollary of their general prominence as
young, active, and appealing gods. Younger gods tend to
be more popular than their elders. Zeus displaced his father
Cronus, who had previously displaced his own father Uranus.
In Iran, Ahuramazda with the passing of time yielded the
limelight to Mithra and Anahita. Accordingly, the quantitative
prominence of Baal and Anath vis-h-vis El in the fertility
myths, is simply an aspect of their quantitative prominence
vis-a-vis the older El in general.
Text #52 opens with the invocation: “Let me proclaim
the Good and Gracious Gods,” the heptad of fertility deities
who are to be sired by El for the purpose of establishing
seven-year cycles of abundance. The seven motif, as we shall
see, permeates the text. The tablet is divided into sections
by horizontal lines drawn by the scribe. The text is in
dramatic form, with stage directions, giving the locale and
dramatis personae for various scenes. The origins of drama
are religious, and text #52 is a landmark in the prehistory
of classical drama.
The prologue mentions the presence of the dignitaries of
the community: civilian and military, ecclesiastical and lay:
from the king and queen down. The note of abundance is
sounded in line 6:
Eat of every food
Drink of the liquor of every wine!
The second section tells of the compound personage “Death-
and-Evil,” who holds two scepters: in one hand the staff of be-
reavement, in the other the staff of widowhood. They hack
him down like a vine in its field. Thus section #2 is, so to
speak, the reverse side of the coin: in #1 (the prologue)
abundance is hailed; in #2 privation is banished.
Section #3 states that something is to be recited, or per-
formed, seven times in keeping with the pervading heptad
Section #4 opens by stating the locale:
The field is the field of the gods
The field of Asher ah and the Girl.
The Elysian Fields of Ugarit are thus defined as the field
of Asherah (consort of El) and the Girl (apparently Anath).
There the “Lads’' do something over a fire seven times. What
they do is the subject of a considerable body of scholarly
literature. The text states
They co[ok a ki]d in milk
A young goat in butter.
“Milk” and “butter” are certain and parallel each other per-
fectly. What is in brackets is broken away and restored.
“Cook” is only half there, and most of “kid” is missing. More-
over, “young goat ” is a hapax legomenon , with a conjectural
translation that cannot be used to bolster the restoration of
“kid.” The restored passage has been used to establish the
Canaanite custom of seething a kid in its mother’s milk,
against which the Biblical prohibition “Thou shalt not seethe
a kid in its mother’s milk” 3 may have been directed. This
prohibition has given rise to the rabbinical insistence that
milk and meat must not be eaten together. Since the separa-
tion of milk and meat is the cornerstone of Jewish ritual
diet, the subject is of wide interest. The above restoration
of the Ugaritic passage is possible, but it is so full of hypo-
thetical factors that we will do well to move on without
The final line of section #4 parallels what we have just
quoted, but “fire,” written ’issatu (which is Semitic) the
first time, is now paralleled by the Indo-European agni
“fire,” cognate with Latin ignis. The Ugaritic form beginning
with a- is, however, closer to Sanskrit Agni (familiar to
westerners as the Indian god of fire). This Indo-European
word is a concrete reminder that Canaan was already in-
fluenced by Indo-Europeans prior to the Amama Age. This is
abundantly borne out by vocabulary, proper names, litera-
ture, and institutions as well as the mythology.
With section #5 we read that Rahmai “Lassie” ( = Anath)
goes and girds (= grapples with) a goodly hero. Anath’s
engaging in combat is in keeping with her bellicose char-
acter of slayer of dragons, game, and men.
Section #6 gives the scene as the Dwellings of the Gods,
and specifies another sevenfold ritual.
Section #7 is an expression of zeal for the divine names of
some deities called “The Sons of Sharruma,” who apparently
must be invoked to assure the success of the main section
(#10), for which the first nine sections are the build-up.
Section #8 is the invocation to the Good and Gracious
Gods who will be bom and nurse at the breasts of Asherah.
Dignitaries are on hand, bringing good sacrifices to the feast
Section #9 brings the scene back to the Elysian Fields
The field vf the gods
The field of Asherah and Rahmai . . .
and all is ready for the main scene.
Section #10 opens at the seashore where two women are
to be created over a fire. El is the aged god, and it is a ques-
tion whether he will remain impotent, so that the women will
function as his daughters and remain childless; or whether
he will rise to virility for the occasion so that the women
may serve as his wives and bear offspring. The myth, and the
drama whereby it was re-enacted, are full of suspense; for
El’s impotence would mean the onslaught of lean years,
whereas his virility would herald the inauguration of a cycle
of plentiful years.
El fashions the two women and puts them in his house.
His staff (symbolizing his penis) is lowered, but he shoots
heavenward, bagging a bird, which is plucked, cleaned, and
roasted over the fire. He then tries to copulate with the two
women, whereupon the text brings us to a crisis of suspense,
If the women cry "0 husband, husband!
Thy rod is lowered
The staff of thy hand has fallen”
While the bird roasts over the fire
Yea broils over the coals,
Then the women are the wives of El
The wives of El and his forever.
But if the women cry “O father, father 1
Thy rod is lowered
The staff of thy hand has fallen ”
While the bird roasts over the fire
Yea broils over the coals.
The girls are the daughters of El
The daughters of El and his forever.
Marriage and adoption could be on more, or on less,
permanent bases. A marriage contract could permit a short-
term union, or call for a permanent and indissoluable mar-
riage. The same variation could hold for daughtership ( called
mdrtutu in Babylonian), a legal state into which a girl could
be adopted. The permanence of whatever relationship emerges
between El and the two women, is in keeping with the seri-
ousness of the drama; on it depends the long-range fertility
of the land. What the women say will determine the future,
whether for good or for evil. To the relief and joy of the
populace, the women exclaim:
“O husband, husband 7
Thy rod is lowered
The staff of thy hand has fallen ”
While the bird roasts over the fire
Yea broils over the coals.
So the two women are the wives of El
El’s wives and his forever.
This guarantees a favorable outcome but not without further
suspense, for, as we shall now note, the first children to be
CANAANITE MYTHOLOGY 189
born of the union are not the Heptad but a pair of celestial
He bends, their lips he kisses
Lo their lips are sweet, sweet as pomegranates.
From kissing, there is conception
From embracing, impregnation .
They go into labor and bear Dawn and Dusk.
Whatever importance Dawn and Dusk may have in the
fertility cult , 4 they are not the primary gods of fertility, whose
functioning is the goal of the text.
The birth of children was announced by messenger to the
fathers, who left obstetrics in the feminine hands of the mid-
wives and parturient women.
Word was brought to El:
“ El’s wives have borne"
But El knows the results without having to be told, for he
first asks and then answers his own rhetorical question:
“ What have they borne?
My children. Dawn and Dusk .**
Thereafter he joins his wives in conjugal love again. Then he
returns to his own abode till the women go into labor and
bear him another brood. Word is brought to him, and this
time the babes are the Good and Gracious Gods of fertility
who suckle the Lady’s breasts thereby imbibing the nourish-
ment that provides them with the power for their important
role. The newborn gods are voracious giants, with
A lip to earth,
A lip to heaven
So that there enter their mouth
The fowl of heaven
And fish of the sea.
El then addresses his seven sons and directs them to the
“ There ye shall sojourn among the stones and trees
Seven full years
E’en eight circling (years)
Till ye Good Gods walk the field
E’en tread the corners of the wilderness .”
Long years of retirement to the wilds among the stones and
trees is typical of Indie epic, where beloved heroes do this
(often for expiation), pending a happy return to civilization.
The seven (“e’en eight” 5 ) years of sojourn in the wilderness
mean that a bad sabbatical cycle has taken place and, by the
process of alternation, a good sabbatical cycle is about to
begin. It therefore is likely that text #52 is connected with
a ritual to end a succession of lean years and inaugurate a
cycle of fat years.
We now approach the happy ending. The seven lean years
are over and the Good Gods are ready to enter the Sown,
where the Guardian who is to let them in, is stationed.
They met the Guardian of the Sown
And shouted to the Guardian of the Sown:
“O Guardian, Guardian, open!”
And he opened an aperture for them so that they entered.
They then ask for the entertainment due to strangers:
“If there is bread , give that we may eat.
If there is wine, give that we may drink”
The Guardian answered that there were both food and drink,
and the text ends on the affirmation of plenty.
Text #52 thus reflects a religious ritual for initiating a
seven-year period of plenty. The form is dramatic and was
doubtless acted out. Our text is the libretto with stage direc-
tions. The authority that is invoked to produce the results
is a myth: the story of how El procreated the Heptad who
preside over the plenteous sabbatical cycle, and how they
auspiciously entered the arable terrain bringing their bless-
ings to it. The myth is the precedent to be invoked for re-
establishing in time the primeval event. We thus have the
myth, the verbal utterance and the act: the complete formula
for agricultural prosperity (without any trace of the Baal
Quantitatively the Baal and Anath texts form the bulk of
the fertility myths from Ugarit, in keeping with the popu-
larity of those younger gods in the religion of Canaan. About
a dozen tablets deal with Baal and Anath myths, but there is
no proof that they were intended to constitute a single com-
position. When we group them as parts of “The Baal and
Anath Cycle” we do so as a matter of practical expedience.
We must discuss them in some order, and we try to arrange
them in the most meaningful sequence. And yet no sequence
can claim to be the one and only sequence that a Ugaritic
priest would have prescribed.
One of the main themes in the mythology is kingship among
the gods. Just as Zeus wrested the kingship of the gods from
Cronus, and the latter from Uranus, Baal wrested the king-
ship from the sea-god Yamm. Text #137 tells how the pan-
theon was assembled under the presidency of El, when Yamm
sent his messengers with the insolent request that Baal be
surrendered to him in bondage:
So says Yamm your lord
Your master, Judge River:
“O gods, give up him whom ye harbor
Him whom the multitudes harbor;
Give up Baal and his partisans
Dagons Son, that I may inherit his gold”
The gods were seated for banqueting, when Baal spied the
messengers coming. The gods, anticipating the unpleasant
message, bent their heads in sadness; but Baal, showing the
courage befitting the king-to-be, took his stand by EL
As soon as the gods saw them
Yea saw the messengers of Yamm
The emissaries of Judge River,
The gods lowered their heads on top of their knees
E'en on the thrones of their lordships.
Baal rebuked them,:
“ Why have ye lowered, O gods.
Your heads on top of your knees
E’en on the thrones of your lordships?
Let the gods twain read the tablets
E’en the messengers of Yamm
The emissaries of Judge River:
Lift, O gods, your heads
From on top of your knees
From the thrones of your lordships
And I shall answer Yamm’s messengers
The emissaries of Judge River .”
Baal’s leadership commands the respect of the gods, who
react by obeying him:
The gods lift their heads
From on top of their knees
From the thrones of their lordships.
The messengers twain arrive and fail to pay obeisance to
the head of the pantheon:
At the feet of El they do not fall
Nor prostrate themselves in the gathered assemblage.
Baal is already meditating violent revenge in his heart. He
has a sharpened sword with flashing blade. Messengers (as
in the Homeric world) had a kind of diplomatic immunity,
so that no matter how great the provocation, Baal had no
right to vent the violence of his feelings on them. The scene
we are about to witness is a forerunner of an episode in the
Iliad (1:188-222), where Achilles is about to slay Agamem-
non because of Agamemnon’s insolent demands, but two god-
desses restrain him. Just as Achilles yields for the time
being, so too does Baal. In fact El abjectly surrenders him:
El, Bull of his father, replies:
"Baal is thy slave, O Yamm,
Baal is thy slave forever
Dagons Son, thy bondsman.
He will bring thy tribute like the gods
Yea bring thine offerings like the sons of holiness”
Thus betrayed by the cowardice of the venerable but senile
Father of the Gods, Baal flies into a rage and
[Seizjes [ a knife] in his hand
A butcher knife in his right
To slay the messengers
[Ana]th grabs [his right hand]
Yea Astarte grabs his left
and tell him that he must not slay the emissaries of Yamm.
The text breaks off after a few fragmentary- lines. It is pos-
sible that the goddesses told Baal to bide his time and things
would turn out in bis favor, even as Hera and Athena advised
Achilles, who, in obedience to them, refrained from slaying
Baal’s opportunity came. Text #68 tells how he van-
quished Yamm and from him seized the kingship. The divine
craftsman, Kothar-and-Hasis, fashioned two dubs and gave
them to Baal for conquering Yamm. The need for two dubs
is a corollary of the ancient psychology that required climactic
action: the first club would strike a preliminary blow; the
second would deal the final and crushing blow. Kothar-and-
Hasis predicts to Baal the victorious outcome of the battle:
“Am 1 not telling thee, O Prince Baal,
Yea declaring, O Rider of Clouds?
ho, thine enemies, O Baal
Lo thine enemies shalt thou smite
Lo thou shalt destroy thy foesl
Thou shalt take thine eternal kingship
Thine everlasting sovereigntyr
Then the divine craftsman gives the clubs their appropriate
194 CANAANITE MYTHOLOGY
Kothar brings down two clubs and proclaims their names:
* Thy name is Driver.
Driver, drive Yamm
Drive Yamm from his throne
River from the seat of his sovereignty!
Thou shalt swoop from the hand of Baal
Like a falcon from his fingers !
Strike the shoulders of Prince Sea
Between the hands of Judge River! n
Note that the imagery is in terms of falconry. The clubs will
fly from the hand of Baal and strike his enemy Yamm, just as
a falcon swoops from the hunter's hand to catch the prey.
The expression “between the hands" means “on die back” in
Hebrew as well as in Ugaritic. The “creative word " 6 of
Kothar-and-Hasis is immediately translated into action:
The club swoops from the hand of Baal
Like a falcon from his fingers
It strikes the shoulders of Prince Yamm
Between the hands of Judge River.
But Yamm is not felled by die blow and still remains in the
fray. So Kothar-and-Hasis names the next club “Expeller” and
commands it to fly from the hand of Baal and deal Yamm
the knockout blow on the head:
So it swoops from the hand of Baal
Like a falcon from his fingers.
It strikes the head of Prince Yamm
Between the eyes of Judge River.
Sea sprawls and falls to earth
Baal thus conquered Yamm and wrested from him the kingship
of the gods.
Victory, however, often leaves a host of new problems in
its wake for the victor. On this occasion, immediately after
the victory, Astarte rebukes Baal for slaying Yamm. Baal is
now king, but his future is fraught with vicissitudes as the
mythology before us will bring out
Text #75 tells of Baal's encounter with ravenous monsters
in the wilderness. The weird creatures (part bovine, part
anthropomorphic) are reminiscent of the Aegean Minotaur on
the one hand and of the Mesopotamian Bull of Heaven on the
On them, are horns like hulls
And humps like buffaloes
And on them is the face of Bad.
The text is fragmentary with many of the line-ends missing.
That the sabbatical cycle of fertility is an underlying motif
is, however, clear from passages like the following:
Seven years the god is full - - -
Even eight circling years , till
Then Baal perished and the years of sterility came on, for
Thus Baal fell like a butt
Yea Hadd collapsed - - - .
Baal had many ups and downs, slain for many a cycle of
sterility and privation, and risen for many a cycle of fertility
and plenty. The multiplicity of his ups and downs is required
by nature itself in the Near East. Canaan is characterized by a
succession of seasons that normally produce a fertile year.
With some luck a number of such fertile years follow one
after the other to form a fertile cycle. But unfortunately, rain
does not always materialize in the rainy season; nor is there
always sufficient dew in the summer. Moreover, locusts may
plague the land and devour the crops. A series of bad years
is the major natural catastrophe against which the fertility
cult was directed. The meteorological history of Canaan,
where Baal was pitted against Mot in the minds of the people,
required the concept that the conflict between the two gods
took place repeatedly. In the frame of reference of Canaanite
religious psychology, each of the two gods was both van-
quished and triumphant many a time in the course of any
CANAAN! TE MYTHOLOGY
One of the larger subdivisions of “The Baal and Anath
Cycle” is called die “Anath” text, which opens with a banquet
scene of the gods. Baal is honored on the occasion with roasted
meat cut with a keen blade from the breast of a fading. Also
A cup is placed in his hand
An amphora in both his hands.
Asherah, consort of El and mother of “the seventy gods,”
graces the occasion. Wine flows in profusion:
They take a thousand pitchers of wine
Ten thousand they mix of its mixture.
Like the Greeks in Homer, the Canaanites often cut their
wine, and enhanced the pleasures of roast meat and mixed
wine with music and song:
(A lad) began to sing and chant
With cymbals, a goodly song
The lad good of voice chanted.
Baal went up into the heights of Saphon
Baal viewed his girls
He eyed Pidrai, Girl of Light ,
Also Tallai, Girl of Bain ,
The daughters of Baal, as we know from several Ugaritic
passages, are three in number: Pidrai, Tallai, and Arsai. They
are appropriately nature goddesses: Pidrai symbolizing light;
Tallai, dew and rain; Arsai, earth. Some scholars insist that
they are not the daughters but the consorts of BaaL The texts
call them Baal's bandt-, which means primarily “daughters”
and secondarily “girls.” Since the triad of Baal's daughters is
reflected in the triad of Allah’s daughters according to the
pre-Islamic Arabs, 1 there is some outside confirmation that
the three goddesses are daughters of Baal. This does not
rule out their serving as his consorts as well, because the
ambivalence of relationships in an ancient pantheon may
be remote indeed from the familiar patterns of human society.
Col. II begins with a reference to the scent of game, around
the double doors of Anath ’s house. This is appropriate be-
cause she is a goddess of the hunt and of battle. Suddenly
troops confront her:
And lo Anath fights violently
She slays the sons of the two cities
She fights the people of the seashore
Annihilates mankind of the sunrise.
The reference to the people of the west (seashore) and east
(sunrise) is a common idiom called a “merism” or combina-
tion of antonyms to indicate totality (like our English "they
came great and small,” which means “everybody came”).
Accordingly, Anath is said to be slaying “everyone.” The
scene we are about to witness is a parallel to the Egyptian
(rather than Mesopotamian) story of the near-destruction of
mankind. The Mesopotamians (followed by the Hebrews)
conceived of the near-destruction of mankind at the hands
of the god(s) in terms of a deluge. But the Egyptians had a
myth about a brutal goddess, Sekhmet, who went berserk
and would have exterminated the human race had she not
been stopped before it was too late. Ugaritic mythology,
confronting us with a variant of this tradition, tells of how
the violent Anath slew men and exulted as their cut-off heads
and hands flew through the air:
Under her (flew) heads like vultures
Over her (flew) hands like locusts.
Again, note the merism; “under” and “over” indicate “every-
where” about her. The ancient Near Easterners used to cut
off heads and hands to count, and boast of, their victims slain
in battle. Heads and hands are therefore symbols of victory,
figuring in the art as well as texts of the Near East Our
present text is paralleled by Syrian seal cylinders of the
Amama Age, showing the victorious goddess with heads and
hands filling the atmosphere.
198 CANAANITE MYTHOLOGY
Sekhmet of Egypt was stopped by flooding the area with
beer dyed blood-red with ocher. The bloodthirsty Sekhmet,
mistaking the reddened beer for blood, drank her fill and was
put to sleep by die beer. Anath, somewhat similarly, is de-
picted as wading in the blood of her human victims:
She plunges knee-deep in the blood of heroes
Neck-high in the gore of troops.
She battles on with club and bow until she reaches her
palace. At this point we are confronted with a typical feature
of the literature. All the fighting so far is merely the first
round. Another scene, paralleling this one, will come later
and tell of the climax (i.e., final victory) . So our text states
that on this first round "she was not sated.” She thereupon
renews the battle, adding new tactics:
She fights violently
Battles the sons of the two cities
She hurls chairs at the soldiers t
Hurling tables at the armies
Footstools at the troops.
Brawl tactics, specifically the throwing of furniture, are
famous from Odysseus' battle against the suitors in his halls
at Ithaca. In Psalm 23:5, "Thou preparest a table before me
in the presence of mine enemies” may mean that Cod pro-
vides His own with ammunition.
With her tactics in the second round, Anath scores die
victory and is overjoyed at the massacre she has wrought:
Much she fights , and looks ;
Slays > and views.
Anath swells her liver with laughter
Her heart is filled with joy
For in the hand of Anath is victory.
For she plunged knee-deep in the blood of soldiers
Neck-high in the gore of troops.
Until she is sated
She fights in the house
Battles between the tables .
The parallel with the Odyssey is many-sided Anath is de-
picted returning from the hunt, trying to enter her own
palace, which is occupied by intruders. Her first battle, out of
doors, does not end with her in full possession of her premises.
But the second battle, concluded indoors, leads to her re-
possessing her palace. Both the tactics of furniture throwing,
and the massacre of the intruders to repossess one's own
palace, jibe with Odysseus’ victory in his halls. After her vic-
tory Anath first
Washes her hands in the blood of soldiers
Her fingers in the gore of troops.
But the blessings of peace follow the ravages of war:
She draws water and washes:
Dew of heaven
Fat of earth
Rain of the Rider of Clouds .
All of the myths we are discussing lead up to the theme of
nature functioning with regularity and benevolence to bless
mankind with fertility. The formula “dew of heaven and fat
of earth” recurs in the blessings of Isaac. “Rider of Clouds”
refers to Baal in Ugaritic, but to Yahwe in Psalm 68:5.
The acts of Anath bring on the corresponding functions of
Dew that the heavens pour
Rain that the stars pour.
The text goes on to tell of the abundance of game too.
Baal next dispatches his messengers to Anath, telling her
to lay aside warfare and establish peace, promising her to
reveal the secret of nature if she will come to his mountain
The message of Aliyan Baal
The word of Aliy the Mighty:
(Bury) enmity in the earth of battles
Put mandrakes in the dust
Pour ( a ) peace ( offering ) into the midst of the earth,
Conciliation into the midst of the fields
To me let thy feet race
To me let thy legs hasten,
For I have a word to tell thee
An utterance, to declare unto thee :
The word of the tree and the whisper of the stone
The sound of the heavens to the earth
Of the Deeps to the stars.
1 understand lightning which the heavens do not know
The word which men do not know
Nor the multitudes of the earth understand.
Come and I shad reveal it
In the midst of the mountain of me, God of Saphon
In the sanctuary, in the mountain of mine inheritance
In the Good Place, on the HiU of Power.**
When Anath beholds die messengers coming she is stricken
by misgivings that some ill may have befallen Baal Before
they , have time to deliver their joyous message Anath
Lifts her voice and shouts:
“Why have Gupan and Ugar come?
What foe has risen against Bad
Or enemy against the Rider of Clouds?**
Anath then recounts her past victories over Baal’s enemies.
Those battles symbolize the triumph of the forces of good (or
life) over the forces of evil (or death).
" Have I not crushed Y amm, ETs Darling,
Nor annihilated the great god River ?
Have I not muzzled the dragon
Nor crushed the crooked serpent
Mighty monster of the seven heads?
I have crushed Mot, darling of the earth gods
I have destroyed the house of El-Zebub
l have battled and gained possession of the gold of those
who (once) drove Baal from the heights of
The sea-gods figure prominently among the foes of Baal, lord
of earth and fertility. The dragon (tannin) is well known
from Scripture. The crooked serpent is none other than
Leviathan, who is actually named as such in other Ugaritic
texts that we shall presently examine. His seven heads give
the number of the heads that God crushed according to
Psalm 74:14 (“Thou hast crushed the heads of Leviathan”) .
In Revelation 12:3 ff. the seven-headed monster of evil that
emerges from the sea is a reflex of the old Leviathan myth
and symbolized the evil to be vanquished by God. Later still,
in the Aramaic incantation bowls (from about a.d. 500 in
Babylonia), magicians invoked the precedent of God’s con-
quest of Leviathan, to dispel the forces of evil from the homes
of their clients. 9 All this has a bearing cm New Testament and
various forms of Jewish dualism (N.B. the Qumran Scrolls 0 ),
whereby the forces of good (or light or God) are pitted
against the forces of evil (or darkness or Satan). This is
frequently attributed to borrowing from Zoroastrianism. But,
as we now see, the myth of the dualistic battle was deeply
entrenched in Canaan from pre-Hebraic times. The myth
of the conflict was absorbed by the Hebrews along with the
language, literature, and lore of Canaan from the very start of
Hebrew history in Canaan. We know the parallel (and re-
lated) myth of die Greeks, about the seven- (or nine-) headed
Hydra slain by Heracles. The earliest attestation of the myth
is a seal cylinder from Mesopotamia of die third millennium
b.c. (Dynasty of Akkad) showing heroes vanquishing the
seven-headed monster. 10 Accordingly, all the available evi-
dence points to the spread of this dualistic myth from the
Semitic to the Iranian sphere, not vice versa. That Ir anian
back-influence may have heightened the already existing
dualistic tendencies in the Semitic world is quite likely, start-
ing with the Achaemenian Conquest and continuing into
Roman times; but that is very different from attributing the
origin of Christian dualistic tendencies to non- Jewish sources.
Mot (“Death”) is the most prominent adversary of Baal.
He appears often enough in Hebrew poetry, and his cult is
reflected in the early Hebrew name Az-mawet 11 (“Mot-Is-
Strong”). Appeasing the forces of evil, as well as adoring the
forces of good, is familiar in many religions (cf. the cults of
the lethal Nergal in Mesopotamia, and of the evil Seth in
El-Zebub, as we have noted above, is already an evil deity.
He reverberates as Baal-Zebub , 12 the prince of the demons
in the New Testament . 18
The gold guarded by dragons on mountains is a common
motif in Indo-European epic.
Anath ends her address to Gupan and Ugar by conclud-
ing her tale of conquests over Baal’s foes, who had once
Driven him, from the seat of his kingship
From the dais , from the throne of his sovereignty , . •
and she asks
“What enemy has arisen against Baal
Or foe against the Rider of Clouds P”
The messengers allay her fears:
“No enemy has arisen against Baal
Nor foe against the Rider of Clouds ."
Then they deliver the message and invitation, repeating the
very words put into their mouths by Baal, as quoted above.
The secret that Baal offers to reveal to Anath is the word
of nature. The passage describing it is one of the finest in
Ugaritic, anticipating the Scriptural formulation of the same
idea: “The heavens declare the glory of God, yea the
firmament tells of His handiwork. Day utters word to day; and
night imparts knowledge to night. There is neither utterance
nor words whose sound is unheard. Throughout all the land
their sound goes forth; at the end of the world are their
words” (Psalm 19:2-5). In Canaan, whether at Ugarit or in
Israel, the poets heard the voice of nature; heavens and
earth talked to them, revealing the glorious mystery of the
god(s) and creation. For those ancients, nature was animate;
with the segments thereof conversing in words that the
initiated could understand.
Anath accepts the invitation, and instead of wasting time
sending further messages back and forth, she decides to race
ahead of Gupan and Ugar.
Then she sets face toward Baal
On the heights of Saphon
By the thousand acres
Yea myriad hectares.
This formula expresses the speed at which gods travel.
All too prosaically, it could be rendered “by leaps and
Baal entertains Anath, upon her arrival, with roasted ox
and fading. She draws water and washes with
Dew of heaven, fat of earth
Dew that the heavens pour
Bain that the stars pour . . .
and game abounds because of her felicity; for she is the
Lady of fertility and of the hunt.
Baal’s invitation is not without ulterior motive. In exchange
for his secret he wants Anath to intercede on his behalf to
get a palace. Diplomacy in divine circles is as devious as
among men. Baal’s tactics were to get Anath to appeal to
Asherah to ask El, the head of the pantheon, to authorize
Kothar-and-Hasis to construct a palace for Baal. Baal was
the only important god without a palace of his own. His
newly won kingship required his possessing one. His plea
included the statement that just about all the gods had
“ There is the dwelling of El, the shelter of his sons
The dwelling of Lady Asherah of the Sea
The dwelling of Pidrai , Girl of Light,
The shelter of Tallai, Girl of Rain ,
The dwelling of Arsai, Girl of Y°bdr
The dwelling of the famed brides.”
Anath assures Baal that she will, if necessary, compel El to
grant the request, by dire threats of violence.
“And the Virgin Anath declared:
‘The Bull, God of my father, will yield
He will yield for my sake and his own
For I shall trample him like a sheep on the ground
Make his gray hair flow with blood
The gray of his beard with gore
Unless he grants Baal a house like the gods
Yea a court like the sons of Asherahr ”
Anath then departs for the abode of El where the two cosmic
rivers, the sources of the Two Deeps, have their origin. There
she threatens her aged sire with physical violence. El, afraid of
his brutal daughter, has hidden in the innermost chamber:
the eighth chamber within a chamber.
El answers from seven chambers
Out of eight compartments:
* 1 know thee to be impetuous, O my daughter ,
For there is no restraint among goddesses.
What dost thou desire, O Virgin Anath P”
Now that El has been cowed into granting whatever she
wants, Anath can afford to be filial and give up her crude
And the Virgin Anath replied:
“Thy word, O El, is wise
Thy wisdom, unto eternity
Lucky life is thy word .
Our king is Aliyan Baal
Our judge, above whom there is none ”
Anath’s appeal was carefully planned. Asherah and her brood
were already there to add their voices to Anath’s in getting
El’s authorization for building Baal’s palace:
There shout Asherah and her sons
The Goddess and the hand of her kin:
"Bad has no house like the gods
Nor a court like the sons of Asherah"
Vociferously they remind El that practically every god ex-
cept Baal, who is now king, has a palace. El has no choice
but to authorize the construction.
Asherah’s messengers. Holy and Blessed, are dispatched
to Caphtor, where Kothar-and-Hasis has his atelier. They are
to convey to the divine craftsman El’s orders to erect the
Text #51 takes up the story. Like Hephaistus busy at his
forge when Thetis comes to request armor for Achilles, so
too Kothar-and-Hasis is described at work making fine
objects in his atelier:
The skilled one went up to his bellows.
In the hands of Hasis were the tongs.
He pours silver
He pours silver by the thousand ( shekels )
Gold he pours by the myriad.
The text then enumerates the handsome creations he is mak-
ing: a table, a footstool, shoes, a bowl, etc. — all fit for the
The construction of Baal’s mythical house is a forerunner
of the erection of Yahwe’s historical First Temple in Jeru-
salem. The two accounts are organically related because of
common background and attitudes. In both cases the god’s
interests had grown to a point where he could not condignly
go on any more without a house. The Bible tells that it was
no longer fitting that Israel’s king should dwell in a cedar
palace while God still lived in a tent (The Tabernacle).
Times had changed; Israel had arrived; with the added
stature of Israel among the nations, the cultic requirements
for Israel's God rose. We have seen how Baal's rise to king-
ship required the building of a palace for him. The Biblical
and Ugaritic accounts of the building materials (cedars of
Lebanon covered with metal) also link the mythical and
historic houses of Baal and Yahwe, respectively.
The definitive authorization is sent through Anath to Baal
with instructions to invite certain creatures (their identity
is not yet clear, for we cannot translate their names) where-
upon nature itself will fetch the building materials for him.
Anath, overjoyed, darts through space to the heights of
Saphon to tell the good news to Baal:
“Be informed, O Baal!
I bring thy tidings .
A house will be built for thee like thy brethren
Even a court, like thy kin ,
Invite - - - - into thine house
in the midst of thy palace
So that the mountains will bring thee much silver
The hills, the choicest of gold
And build a house of silver and gold
A house of lapis gems .**
The combination of silver, gold, and lapis lazuli is familiar
from Egyptian and Sumerian mythological texts, too. It is a
reflection of actual art that gloried in the color scheme
produced by the three materials.
Baal now summoned the divine builder.
After Kothar-and-Hasis arrived
He set an ox before him
A fatllng in the midst of his presence .
A throne was set so that he might sit
At the right hand of Aliyan Baal
Until he had eaten and drunk.
After wining and dining the guest Baal got down to business
and instructed Kothar-and-Hasis to build the palace promptly
“in the midst of the heights of Saphon.
The house shall comprise a thousand acres
The palace , ten thousand hectares ”
But a major disagreement arose between Baal and Kothar-
and-Hasis as to whether the palace should have a window.
A new type of building was coming into vogue: “the window
house” (called bit-hi(l)ldni in Babylonian). The divine archi-
tect recommended this new type of building with a window;
Baal, however, stubbornly objected to windows. Finally the
architect prevailed, with the consequence that Baal’s ad-
versary Mot entered Baal’s palace through the window. Mot’s
(i.e., Death’s) entrance through windows is a theme reflected
in Jeremiah 9:20. The dialogue between Baal and Kothar
And Kothar-and-Hasis declared:
“Hear, O Aliyan Baal,
Perceive, O Rider of Cloudsl
Shall I not put a window in the house
A casement in the midst of the palace P”
And Aliyan Baal replied:
“Do not put a window in the house
A casement in the midst of the palacer
And Kothar-and-Hasis replied:
“Thou wilt come around, Baal, to my word.”
Kothar then repeated his advice, but Baal would not be
budged and added that he had three girls (Pidrai, Tallai,
and Arsai), whom he presumably did not want to expose
to any outsider through windows.
From the majestic trees of Lebanon, and the choicest
cedars of Antilebanon, the palace was erected. Then a mighty
conflagration (which we are to compare with the "fire of
Hephaistus”) is applied to the house for a week, at the end
of which the palace emerged resplendent with gold and
silver. This may reflect a process of melting and applying
precious metal to sheath the wood and bricks, giving the
illusion of a house built of solid gold and silver. When the
process was completed
Aliyan Baal rejoiced:
u l have built my house of silver
Yea made my palace of gold "
Thereupon Baal made a great feast to commemorate the
event, slaughtering bulls, sheep, and goats, fatlings and
yearling calves to regale his guests.
He invited his brethren into his house
His kin into his palace.
He invited the seventy sons of Asherah.
He also invited specialized deities: personified animals and
objects, some of which are paralleled in other literatures of
the East Mediterranean. Homer tells of animated tripods that
come to, and go from, the banquets of the gods, automati-
cally. This parallels the deified pithoi in the following passage.
In Hittite rituals, thrones are personified quite as in the
(Baal) caused the ram gods to drink wine;
Caused the ewe goddesses to drink wine.
He caused the bull gods to drink wine ;
Caused the cow goddesses to drink wine.
He caused the chair gods to drink wine ;
Caused the throne goddesses to drink wine.
He caused the pithos gods to drink wine;
Caused the jar goddesses to drink tcine.
Note how each category comes in parallel pairs, male and
female, giving poetic form to what would otherwise be a
prosaic list. The text adds that the wining and dining
TUI the gods had eaten and drunk
And the twain who suck the breast had quaffed.
The twain are the two deified kings. As in Homer, the kings
at Ugarit were accorded divine status. Note that dyarchy
existed at Ugarit, somewhat as at Sparta. The institution at
both sites would appear to be the legacy of a common Aegean
heritage. On a carved panel on the royal bedstead from
Ugarit, two princes or kings are depicted sucking the breasts
of a goddess, thereby imbibing the milk that imparts divinity
to them. 14 The kings of Ugarit therefore have a place in the
pantheon. It is part and parcel of the epic that kings should
move in divine as well as in human circles; cf. Homer, die
Gilgamesh Epic, and the Patriarchal Narratives in Genesis.
After the banquet, Baal sallied forth and captured ninety
dties. His conquests inspired him with so much confidence
that he felt secure enough to have a window installed in his
And Aliyan Baal declared:
U VTL install (it), Kothar son of Yamm,
Yea Kothar, son of the Assemblage.
Let a window be opened in the house
A casement in the midst of the palace
Thus Baal did come around to following Kothar’ s advice.
Kothar-and-H asis laughed.
He lifted his voice and shouted:
“ Did l not tell thee, O Aliyan Bacd,
Thou wouldst come around, O Bad, to my word P”
He opens a window in the house
A casement in the midst of the pdace .
All this is connected with the functioning of Baal as the
storm-god, because a rain- and thunderstorm ensue. Perhaps
it is somehow connected with the “windows” of heaven men-
tioned in Genesis 7:11 as the source of rain.
At this seemingly happy juncture, trouble looms ominously
for Baal. His foes seize the forest and mountainsides, and his
archenemy Mot resolves on wresting the kingship for him-
“I alone am he who will rule over the gods
Even command gods and men
Dominate the multitudes of the earths
Baal is obliged to communicate with Mot in the underworld,
but warns his messengers, Gupan and Ugar, to beware of
Mot lest he swallow them alive:
“Do not draw near to the god Mot
Lest he make you like a lamb in his mouth
Yea like a kid in his gullet”
The negotiations end in the confrontation of Baal and Mot
in the underworld as we read in text #67. Mot’s summoning
of Baal is connected with Baal’s conquest of the seven-
headed Leviathan. Perhaps Mot felt sympathy for the forces
of evil, since he was after all destructive like them. On being
summoned, Baal is terrified of Mot, and all nature becomes,
as a result, unproductive.
Aliyan Baal feared him
The Rider of Clouds dreaded him.
Word went back to the god Mot,
Was relayed to the Hero, El’s beloved:
“ The message of Aliyan Baal
The reply of the Mighty Warrior:
‘Hail, O god Mot !
1 am thy slave, e’en thine forever * ”
The two ( messenger ) gods departed
Nor did they sit .
Then they set face toward the god Mot
In the midst of his city Hamrai.
Lo the throne on which he sits
Is the land of his inheritance.
The twain lift their voices and shout:
“ The message of Aliyan Baal
The reply of the Mighty Warrior:
'Hail, O deity Motl
I am thy slave, e’en thine forever "
The deity Mot rejoiced.
The capitulation of Baal is complete, since he becomes by
his own declaration the slave of Mot in perpetuity. In the Old
Testament there are two kinds of slaves: the native (Hebrew)
slave who has the right to go free in the seventh (or sab-
batical) year; and the eternal slave, who never becomes free
of his master.
Baal’s capitulation meant his descent to Mot and to death.
But before doing so, Baal copulated with a heifer who bore
him a tauromorphic son. Then we find Baal fallen dead on
the earth. When a pair of messengers bear the sad tidings
to the head of the pantheon (El, or Latpan) :
Thereupon Latpan god of mercy
Goes down from his throne
Sits on the footstool
And from the footstool sits on the earth .
He pours the ashes of mourning on his head
Yea the dust of scattering on his pate.
El also dons a special garb for mourning and lacerates him-
self, wandering in grief through mountains and forest. Anath
too wanders in grief until she comes upon die corpse of Baal
lying on the earth. With the help of the sun-goddess, Shapsh,
Anath removes the corpse to the heights of Saphon for burial
with numerous sacrifices in his honor.
Anath then proceeds to the abode of ELI and Asherah, and
(in text #49)
She raises her voice and shouts:
“ Let Asherah and her sons rejoice
Ken the goddess and the band of her kin
For AUyan Baal is dead
The Prince , Lord of Earth, has perished ."
It will be noted that this mythology is cosmic, not local. Baal
is the Lord of the entire Earth, not the Baal of Ugarit, Byblos,
Tyre, or Sidon. El and Asherah are the chief god and god-
dess of the whole pantheon. Baal and Anath are the universal
gods of fertility. And so forth.
The news that Baal is dead meant that another god would
have to be appointed king in his stead. El and Asherah finally
decide on their son Athtar the Terrible as long to replace
Thereupon Athtar the Terrible
Goes up into the heights of Saphon
Yea sits on the throne of Aliyan Bad.
His feet do not reach the footstool
His head does not reach its top .
So Athtar the Terrible says:
" 1 cannot be king in the heights of Saphon
Athtar the Terrible goes down
Goes down from the throne of Aliyan Baal
To be king over all the grand earth.
Though Athtar became king of the earth, he was unequal
to the magnitude of Baal's kingship in Saphon, as the in-
adequacy of his physical stature indicated.
Meanwhile Anath nursed her desire for vengeance on
Baal’s slayer. Eventually she asks Mot for her brother Baal
and Mot admits his guilt, whereupon
She seizes the god Mot
With a sword she cleaves him
With a fan she winnows him
With fire she bums him
In the millstones she grinds him
In the field she plants him.
Mot is thus destroyed, but his being planted in the ground
is somehow connected with the future growth of the soil.
Perhaps the fact that he had swallowed Baal explains why
Mot’s body can function as seed giving rise to life.
The planting of Mot is the prelude to the resurrection of
Baal. El himself anticipates the joyous moment, but even
the chief of the pantheon depends on dreams for informa-
tion. When El dreams of nature functioning with abundance,
he will know that Baal has come back to life:
In a dream of Latpan god of mercy
In a vision of the Creator of Creatures
CANAANITE MYTHOLOGY 213
The heavens rain oil
The toadies flow with honey.
Latpan, god of mercy , rejoices
His feet on the footstool he sets
He cracks a smile and laughs
He raises his voice and shouts :
“ Let me sit and rest
So that my soul may repose in my breast
Because Miyan Baal is alive
Because the Prince, Lord of Earth, exists "
Shapsh, die sun-goddess who sees all, is dispatched to find
BaaL When she finds him, he is battling once more with
Mot Baal had attacked Mot, knocked him to the ground,
and forced him from the throne of his kingship for seven
years. And now, in the seventh year, Mot accuses Baal of
having subjected him to seven years of annihilation. From
Mot’s words, he apparently is referring to what Anath did
to him to avenge Baal:
“On account of thee, O Bad, I have seen shame
On account of thee 1 have seen scattering by the sword
On account of thee I have seen burning by fire
On account of thee 1 have seen grinding in the millstones
Soon Mot and Baal are again locked in mortal combat:
They tangle like hippopotamuses
Mot is strong. Bad is strong.
They gore like buffaloes
Mot is strong, Bad is strong.
They bite like serpents
Mot is strong, Bad is strong.
They kick like racers
Mot is down. Bad is down.
As the fight is thus fought to a draw, Shapsh arrives and
intimidates Mot with the threat of El’s punishment on Baal’s
“Hear, O god Mot l
How canst thou fight with AUyan Baal?
How will the Butt, god of thy father , not hear thee?
Witt he not remove the supports of thy seat
Nor upset the throne of thy kingship
And break the scepter of thy rule F*
The god Mot was afraid
The Hero , beloved of El, was scared .
There are other Baal and Anath fragments. As long as
nature continues to function and to malfunction, the conflict
of Baal and Mot continues. The aim of the cult was always
to secure the victory of Baal over Mot, to usher in a seven-
year cycle of plenty, so that the populace may enjoy the
blessings of abundance.
As we have already noted, the fertility cult transcended
Baalism. Text #77 is lunar, dealing with the marriage of
Yarih ("Moon”) with the Mesopotamian lunar goddess Nik-
kal (from Sumerian Nin-gal). The wedding is to result in
fertility symbolized as the child that the bride will bear to
the groom. The text is divided by a scribal line into two
sections. The first part is essentially of masculine interest, and
deals with the groom’s courtship and payment of die mar-
riage price. The second part has to do with the ladies and
the bride’s dowry. We may close our discussion of Ugaritic
mythology with Yarih’s proposal of marriage:
“I shall pay her bride price to her father:
A thousand ( shekels ) of silver
E'en ten thousand of gold.
1 shall send jewels of lapis-lazuli.
1 shall make her fields into vineyards
The field of her love into orchards"
The handsome price is of course beyond the range of normal
human ability to pay, but the term muhr (“bride price”) is
taken from real life. Moreover, his promise to make her fertile
reflects the real attitude toward marriage, whose purpose
was human fertility. A husband was like a fanner who culti-
CANAANITE MYTHOLOGY 215
vates the soil so that it yields a harvest A woman, like a
field, needs the seed and cultivation of a husband, if she is to
be fertile. Our text is therefore a hieros gamos: a wedding
of the gods, whose fertility brings on terrestrial abundance
The mythology of Canaan is important in more ways than
one. Its chief significance lies in its effect on ancient Israel.
Both where the Old Testament incorporates it, and where
the Old Testament reacts against it, Canaanite mythology
continues to exert its impact upon us through the Bible.
1. The translations in the following pages have been newly
made from the Ugaritic texts in my Ugaritic Manual,
Rome, 1955. Some additional mythological fragments
have since appeared in Ch. Virolleaud, Palais royal
d’Ugarit II, Paris, 1957.
2. Ugaritic Manual, pp. 269-70 (§20.766).
3. Exodus 23:19; 34:26; Deuteronomy 14:21.
4 Sahar (“Dawn” or “Morning Star”) is also connected
with the rains of fertility in Hosea 6:3. The imagery of
text #52, wherein God impregnates two human wives,
reverberates in the Hebrew prophets; cf. Ezekiel 23
(N.B. v. 4) and Hosea passim (e.g., 1:2 followed by
3:1), Hosea connects this theme with agricultural fertil-
ity; for depending on the relationship of the women to
Him, God either gives or withholds food and drink
5. These numbers are not used as loosely as meets the eye.
For while ordinarily there is no eighth year in the sab-
batical cycle, twice in a century there is in a peculiar way.
Each jubilee ends with a sabbatical cycle in which the
seventh year thereof (= the forty-ninth of the jubilee
cycle) calls for the land to lie fallow; and then that
year is followed by another in which the land is again
to lie fallow. Accordingly the worst sabbatical cycle is
a sterile seventh cycle the seventh year of which is
climaxed by the eighth sterile year. See Leviticus 25.
6. The concept of the creative word is familiar from the
first chapter of Genesis. The Creation was effected
neither by work, nor with materials, nor by tools. God
simply says, “Let there be x,” and x comes into existence.
7. See Moslem World XXXIII, No. 1, 1943, for “The Daugh-
ters of Baal and Allah.’’
8. See Orientalia XXII, 1953, pp. 243-44.
9. I have surveyed the basic ideas and bibliography of the
Scrolls in Adventures in the Nearest East , London, 1957,
pp. 132-43; and “Selected Books on the Dead Sea
Scrolls,” Jewish Book Annual XVII, 1959-60, pp. 12-18.
10. See my The Living Past , New York, 1941, Chapter VI,
11. II Samuel 23:31; I Chronicles 8:36; 9:42; 11:33; 12:3;
12. II Kings 1:2, 3, 6, 16.
13. For Beelzebub, see Matthew 12:24.
14. See Antiquity XXIX, 1955, pp. 147-49, and Plate VIL
Aisdeitner, J. Die mythologischen und kultischen Texte aus
Ras Schamra, Budapest, 1959.
De Langhe, R. Chapter in S. H. Hooke’s Myth , Ritual and
Kingship, Oxford, 1958.
Driver, G. R. Canaanite Myths and Legends, Edinburgh,
Gaster, T. H. Thespis , New York, 1950.
Ginsberg, H. L. Translations of Ugaritic literary texts in
J. B. Pritchard’s Ancient Near Eastern Texts, 2nd ed.,
Gordon, C. H. Ugaritic Literature, Rome, 1949.
. Ugaritic Manual, Rome, 1955.
Gray, J. The Legacy of Canaan, Leiden, 1957.
Kapelrud, A. S. Baal in the Ras Shamra Texts, Copenhagen,
Pope, M. H. El in the Ugaritic Texts, Leiden, 1955.
Van Seims, A. Marriage and Family Life in Ugaritic Litera-
ture, London, 1954.
Virolleaud, Ch. Numerous articles in Syria since 1929, and
books inclu ding those currendy appearing in the series
Palais royal d'Ugarit, Paris.